In this issue:
-Changing Tack: restructuring our division
-Jim Lockhart retires
-The Permanent Archival Record for mitigation projects
-Georgia’s African-American Masonic Lodges
-National Register statistics
-Lead-Paint and Asbestos: Don't Panic! Part 1
-Georgia State Historic Preservation Office timeline, Part 6
-Staff Profiles: Jo Ann Jenkins
-Upcoming HPD staff appearances

Changing Tack: restructuring our division
by Dr. David Crass, Division Director and State Archaeologist

HPD's new organizational structure.
One of the most difficult, but most important, sailing evolutions is called “coming about.” Coming about involves swinging the bow of the boat through the wind to sail in another direction, or "tack."  The evolution starts when the person steering the vessel, the helmsman, shouts, “prepare to come about,” which warns the crew to ready themselves.  Crewmen scramble to their places, and a few moments later, the helmsman shouts the command “coming about!” and shoves the rudder hard over.  The bow swings sharply through the maneuver and then settles down.  This evolution takes only a few moments, after which the boat is now racing in a new direction, or tack.

HPD is going through a similar evolution as this issue of Preservation Posts "goes to press."  We have shoved the helm over, changed tack, and are in that moment when the boat’s bow is starting to settle on to a new course.  To understand why this change in course was necessary we have to turn to the division’s history.

HPD was born as the Georgia Historical Commission in 1951.  In 1973, the Commission was incorporated into the new Department of Natural Resources.  Two trends emerged in the late 1980s that were to continue for the ensuing decades.  First, there was a steady increase in projects reviewed under the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) as federal agencies increased their permitting and other undertakings in the state.  Second, additional duties and responsibilities outside the NHPA were assumed.  In 1994, the Historic Preservation Section became the Historic Preservation Division when it was broken out from the Parks, Recreation, and Historic Sites Division.

From the inception of the Historical Commission right through to the present, the general organization of HPD did not change.  Essentially it was a team of subject matter experts reporting to the Director, creating a very flat organizational structure. 

As a result of this flat organizational structure, the Director was so involved in the daily operations of the Division that it was impossible to manage institutional relationships and identify new opportunities for HPD to make greater contributions to historic preservation in the state.  To return to our sailing analogy, the Director was trying to helm the ship and rig the sails at the same time--an impossible task.  In addition, there was little opportunity for professional development of staff members. 

To meet this challenge we have reorganized our internal structure as well as many of our business functions.  Our new organization is more hierarchical, with three Sections: Historic Resources, Archaeology, and Operations.  Responsibility for day-to-day office functions now rests in the hands of our Section Chiefs.  Richard Cloues is our Historic Resources Chief, Candy Henderson is our Operations and Outreach Chief (which includes outreach, grants, and the Georgia African American Heritage Preservation Network), and we currently have a vacant Archaeology Section Chief position. 

HPD’s new organizational structure provides two major benefits.  First, it offers staff options for assuming additional responsibilities and furthering their careers.  Just as importantly, by instituting an executive team it gives the Director the opportunity to focus on the big picture: managing relationships, finding new opportunities, and generally, steering the ship. 

Already the new structure is yielding benefits.  HPD is becoming more nimble because daily resource management decisions are made more quickly.  At the same time, larger policy issues are addressed more efficiently because the Director, supported by the executive team, can focus on gathering the necessary information to make critical decisions. 

The organizational changes that have taken place are only the beginning, however.  We are also making changes in our business functions, addressing staff development issues, forging new relationships, and reinvigorating old ones.  Look for more on the new HPD in upcoming issues of Preservation Posts.

Jim Lockhart retires
by Richard Cloues, Historic Resources Section Chief

Jim at work in 1979 (left) and 2007 (right).
Jim Lockhart, HPD's architectural photographer, retired on January 22 after 32 years of service to the Division.  During those 32 years, Jim compiled the state's largest and most diverse collection of images of Georgia's historic properties - a collection containing an estimated 50,000 images.  In announcing Jim's retirement, Division Director Dave Crass congratulated Jim on his remarkable career and noted that his photographic skills and experience will be sorely missed by everyone at HPD.

Much of Jim's architectural photography has been in the form of photodocumentation to support Georgia's nominations to the National Register of Historic Places.  Jim has provided archival-quality photographs for more than 1,600 of Georgia's 2,000 National Register nominations.  These nominations represent virtually every type and style of historic building, historic engineering structures, landscapes ranging from front yards and formal gardens to agricultural fields and pecan groves, historic sites such as battlefields and cemeteries, archaeological sites from earthen mounds to shell middens, and historic districts including downtowns, neighborhoods, industrial complexes, and farms.  Each and every one of these historic places has been photographed with the same careful attention to composition, lighting, and technical detail.  Richard Cloues, HPD's Survey and National Register Unit Manager and a long-time associate of Jim's, maintains that every one of Jim's photographs is literally worth a thousand words (which would then equate to approximately 50 million words!), making Georgia's National Register nominations all the more compelling.

Jim's National Register photography exemplifies what is called "documentation" photography:  an accurate, factual record of the character and appearance of a historic property, presented in a technically superior format.  Jim's photographs also capture critical details that convey the architectural style of a building, its historic purpose, and even the stories behind the facade.  More distant views record the sense of place for each historic property that is so important in understanding what the National Register calls "feeling and association."

Throughout his career, Jim also contributed photographs for other office activities including exhibits and displays such as the Georgia Courthouses exhibit, publications including HPD's five-year strategic plans, annual reports, and special projects such as the 1993 African-American heritage initiative involving a slide show, videotape, posters, and a publication.  Jim also provided photography for the state's annual Centennial Farms award ceremonies and created popular posters of the award-winning farms.  Jim's images also have enlivened countless numbers of staff presentations at conferences, workshops, and other meetings.  Whenever anyone needed an image, for whatever reason, Jim had it, or would get it.

In the three decades that Jim was with HPD, he saw many changes in staffing, leadership, programs, and office space -- but perhaps none more dramatic than the change from film-based to digital photography.  Throughout this transition, Jim maintained his consistently high quality of imagery.  Thanks to his skillful adoption of this new technology, Georgia was one of the first two states allowed to submit digital photographs with its National Register nominations.

Jim's photography has not gone unnoticed outside HPD.  In 1988, Jim's photograph of Jerusalem Church at New Ebenezer, built in 1769, was selected for the cover of a national historic preservation calendar highlighting the oldest buildings in each state.  That honor also earned Jim an audience with then-governor Joe Frank Harris.  And in 2002, the Georgia Association of the American Institute of Architects awarded Jim its first and only honor award for architectural photography.  In bestowing the award, Jim was cited for his "personal and professional contributions to the architectural profession and to the historic preservation movement in Georgia."

Please join us in congratulating Jim on his remarkable career, thanking him for his contributions to historic preservation across the state, and wishing him the best in his well-earned retirement.

The Permanent Archival Record for mitigation projects
by Melina Vasquez, Environmental Review and Preservation Planning Assistant

Above, a small portion of the Permanent Archival Record for a Georgia Department of Transportation bridge.
Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended (NHPA) requires federal agencies using federal dollars, licenses or permits to consider effects to historic properties in project planning.  The NHPA defines adverse effects as the direct or indirect alteration of characteristics of a historic property that qualify the property for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places.   While most projects reviewed by HPD are completed with little or no adverse impact to historic properties, a number of projects result in adverse effects to historic properties.  The federal agency, SHPO and other consulting parties work together to avoid or minimize such effects, sometimes entering into a Memorandum of Agreement, which allows the project to continue even though a historic property will be adversely impacted, by establishing mitigation measures to resolve the adverse effect.

A Permanent Archival Record (PAR) is designed to document a resource in its setting prior to project implementation, which is retained at HPD.  These records are not just a collection of photographs, but final records to document the existence of significant resources.  Some of these permanent records follow guidelines developed by HPD, such as the bridge pictured above. Other records follow guidelines established by the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS), which will be discussed in a later Preservation Posts article.  In order to organize the PAR documentation for easy access and reference, HPD has created a searchable informational database, ensured that each record is packaged in archivally stable material, has organized each record by the date received, and is currently drafting a plan for public access to the material. 

To learn more about Section 106, visit

To learn about Public Benefits of Mitigation, visit

Georgia’s African American Masonic Lodges
by Lynn Speno, Survey and Register Specialist

The Beulah Grove Lodge No.372, Free and Accepted York Masons/Pleasant Grove School, a circa 1910 African American lodge/school building, is located in Douglas County.
What do a church, a cemetery, a lodge meeting hall, and a school have in common?   They are all part of a small, rural, historic African American community in Douglas County.  In this community of Pleasant Grove, a church and Masonic lodge were founded around 1881 and a church building was constructed.  About 20 years later, around 1910, a dual-purpose lodge/school building was constructed, at which time classes for children began. This lodge/school building, the Beulah Grove Lodge No.372, Free and Accepted York Masons/Pleasant Grove School, was recently listed in the National Register of Historic Places for the role it played in the education and social history of the community.

Masonic lodges played an important role in African American communities. They provided venues for social gatherings.  Masons were commonly the community leaders, such as preachers, teachers, and businessmen. Many of the lodges were small independent organizations that functioned largely as mutual aid societies and originated in churches.  Their headquarters were generally two-story frame structures, unpainted, without a ceiling, and with unfinished interior walls.  If the Masons had no building, they met in churches, other lodges, or abandoned buildings. Women’s groups such as the Order of the Eastern Star often used the lodge building for their meetings.

Many African American Masonic lodges also used their buildings for classroom space on the first floor, while they met on the second floor.  From the end of the Civil War until the 1930s, most of the African-American children in the South attended a church or lodge-affiliated school constructed by volunteer labor and maintained by the local African American community.  By 1915, less than 40 percent of buildings used for the education of African American children were publicly owned in Georgia.

These historic lodge buildings can be found throughout the state and are important for the role they played in African American life.  The Historic Preservation Division has identified some of these resources in surveys or in National Register-listed historic districts including those in Claxton, Vidalia, Waynesboro, Chickamauga, Eulonia, Rochelle, Lincolnton, Dalton, Jeffersonville, Atlanta, Carrollton, Sapelo Island, Alapaha, Douglasville, and Columbus.  Perhaps you know of others in your community.  The Historic Preservation Division is interested in learning more about your historic African American lodge hall.  Please contact Jeanne Cyriaque, African American Programs Coordinator at 404-656-4768 or if you know of a historic lodge building in your area.

Lead-Paint and Asbestos: Don’t Panic! Part 1
by Bill Hover, Tax Incentives & Rehabilitation Guidance Section Chief and Architectural Reviewer

Lead-based paint and asbestos are two materials that continue to cause great concern when questions about renovating or rehabilitating historic houses and buildings come up.  While these are legitimate concerns and should be addressed, they should also be kept in perspective to avoid historically inappropriate and often unnecessary treatments.  This two-part article is intended to briefly outline the issues and suggest preservation sensitive solutions.

Lead-based paint 
Let’s start with some basic facts: lead is a toxic material for anyone when ingested, but most at risk are fetuses, infants, and children under age 6; for many years, before the government banned its use in 1978, lead was a common ingredient in paint formulas because it enhanced durability.  Additionally, lead paint’s wide spread use and toxicity has prompted government abatement programs in a campaign to eliminate childhood lead poisoning. However, these programs do not simply mandate the removal of lead-based paint, nor do other laws and regulations. 

When maintaining, altering, or rehabilitating a historic building awareness of lead-based paint should be a factor in managing work activities, but it really shouldn’t cause alarm because methods of treatment are well established.  Furthermore, the extent of lead mitigation work may not be as extensive as initially perceived.  The main reason for this is because only “lead hazards” really need to be dealt with.  Lead hazards are conditions where lead is ingestible, either by breathing lead dust or eating lead-contaminated material or chips.  Typically, therefore, areas that need to be focused on are those where a lead hazard is probable, including deteriorated (chipped/flaked) areas of walls and ceilings, friction and impact surface conditions like doors and windows, and chewable surfaces like the nosing of stairs or window sills.  The treatment of these areas should be in accordance with the National Park Service's Preservation Brief No.37, Appropriate Methods for Reducing Lead-Paint Hazards in Historic Housing, which is consistent with the guidance provided in the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing

When actually dealing with a lead hazard condition, containment of the work area and personal protection should be basic set-up priorities, including using HEPA filters and vacuums, spreading and hanging plastic sheets, and proper clean up and disposal of waste.  Then, if possible, work should be done in place, leaving adjacent materials undisturbed.  Take as an example a historic window needing treatment because its sash channels and trough, as friction surfaces, create lead dust.  Therefore, the sash edges, channels and trough are lead hazards.  However, the adjacent window trim is not, because although it has lead-based paint, the surface is intact.  In this case, the sash should be carefully removed and the paint stripped from their wear edges, at a minimum.  Meanwhile the paint should be stripped from the sash channels and trough in place.  Additionally, because the window stool is a chewable surface, it should also be stripped in place.  Since other parts of the window are not disturbed, no additional lead control work would be required.

Coming next month: Part 2 - Asbestos

Georgia State Historic Preservation Office timeline
compiled by Helen Talley-McRae, Public Affairs Coordinator
Part 6: 1994-1998 - Historic Preservation Division; Department of Natural Resources

A 1995 staff photo.

- Historic Preservation Division:  The state office was elevated from Section level to Division.  Section Chief Dr. Elizabeth Lyon was appointed division director.  She retired later that year.  Mark Edwards was named division director in 1994 and held the position until 1998.
- A state performance audit was conducted.
- The statewide preservation conference was held in Americus.

- Flood Recovery:  Tropical Storm Alberto caused major damage in southwest Georgia. HPD secured a federal grant of $2.475 million for a comprehensive program of  flood recovery projects, including stabilization grants for historic buildings, archaeological studies, planning projects, public awareness programs, technical assistance and staff coordination. Two publications and a video produced by HPD are available on our Web site: After the Flood: Rehabilitating Historic Resources, After the Flood: Rebuilding Communities Through Historic Preservation publication and video

- Disclosure of Records (1995); 50-18-72 - This Georgia law authorizes protection of records containing information about historic properties if disclosure would create substantial risks.
- A comprehensive programmatic, documentation and compliance review to maintain state program approval was conducted by the National Park Service.
- HPD offices moved to the historic Healey Building in the Fairlie-Poplar area of downtown Atlanta.  A new logo for the division was designed featuring the pattern of the oculus in the building's rotunda.
- Voice mail and e-mail systems were initiated.   
- Three full-time positions were added: architectural reviewer, grants coordinator, environmental review specialist with 100% federal funds; and two hourly positions were added: receptionist and grants assistant.
- The statewide preservation conference was held in Augusta.
- New Vision: The Preservation Plan for Georgia’s Heritage state plan for 1995-2000 was produced.
- Historic Places: Georgia History Comes Alive heritage education slide show presentation was created.

- Georgia Historic House and Garden Pilgrimage: Cooperative program with Garden Club of Georgia and others; annual tours, garden/landscape grants, landscape survey initiative
- A National Register specialist position was added.
- The statewide preservation conference was held in Atlanta.
- “Disappearing Georgia” feature story series by Charles Seabrook ran in the Atlanta Journal-Constitution.

- HPD's first annual Preservation Achievement Awards were given.
- HPD and Georgia Trust staff participated in a hands-on work day at Pickett's Mill Battlefield State Historic Site during Historic Preservation Week in May.
- Over $100,000 was appropriated by the legislature for a statewide Women's History Initiative study and National Register nominations. HPD hosted the first state-sponsored conference on preserving properties associated with women’s history.  
- The statewide preservation conference was held in Athens in conjunction with a Southeastern State Historic Preservation Office meeting. 
- Historic School Buildings (1997);  20-2-260  This Georgia law allows state funding for rehabilitation of schools that are still used for educational purposes and that were listed in the National Register before December 31, 1994.
- HR 425 was passed creating a Joint Study Committee on Historic Preservation. This body met to discuss the role of historic preservation in the 21st century and to determine the needs of the preservation movement in an effort to maximize the positive impact of historic preservation in Georgia.

- The State Capitol Commission was awarded $13 million in state bonds for restoration of the Capitol building in Atlanta.
- State Agency Historic Property Stewardship (1998); 12-3-55
This Georgia law requires state agencies to prepare preservation plans for historic properties for which they are responsible; creates the state stewardship awards program.
- State Agency Use of Historic Buildings and Historic Districts (1998); 12-3-56
This Georgia law encourages state agencies to locate state offices in historic buildings or historic districts.
- Historical and Cultural Museum Assistance Program (1998); 12-3-57
This Georgia law creates a financial and technical assistance program for museums.
- Three pieces of legislation creating the Land, Water, Wildlife, and Recreation Heritage Fund passed. A six-organization coalition aimed to to create Fund to acquire, manage and preserve natural and historic areas and for recreation grants funded from an increase in the state’s real estate transfer tax. The proposition was defeated in November.
- Grants and Financial Assistance (1998, 2003); 12-3-58
This Georgia law provides state authorization to HPD for preservation grants and financial assistance for preservation activities.
- Archaeology Education and Protection Program:  A state-funded State Archaeologist position was created and placed within HPD. Two staff positions: archaeologist and outreach archaeologist; and the Archaeological Services Unit were created and the Archaeology Education and Protection Program was initiated.
- National Register Review Board meetings changed from quarterly to three times a year.
- The National Preservation Conference was held in Savannah.
- HPD and Georgia Trust staff participated in a hands-on work day at Hay House in Macon during Historic Preservation Week in May.
- The Conservation and Preservation of Tabby: A Symposium on Historic Building Material in the Coastal Southeast was held on Jekyll Island. The report can be read online at

- Georgia Historical Quarterly Special Section: Historic Preservation in Georgia on the 30th Anniversary of the State Historic Preservation Office, 1969-1999 - reprinted courtesy of the Georgia Historical Society  
- HPD History/Chronology by Carole Griffith, November 2002
- Articles and publications posted on HPD's Web site -

Part 1: 1951-1973, Georgia Historical Commission appeared in the September 2009 edition of Preservation Posts
Part 2: 1973-1978, Historic Preservation Section, Office of Planning and Research, Department of Natural Resources appeared in the October 2009 edition of Preservation Posts
Part 3: 1978-1986, Historic Preservation Section appeared in the November 2009 edition of Preservation Posts

Part 4: 1986-1990, Historic Preservation Section; Parks, Recreation and Historic Sites Division; Department of Natural Resources appeared in the December 2009 edition of Preservation Posts
Part 5: 1990-1994 - Historic Preservation Section, appeared in the January 2010 edition of Preservation Posts

Staff Profiles
Jo Ann Jenkins, Information and Referral Specialist

Jo Ann receives and reviews inquiries from the public and researches or refers inquiries to staff or to other agencies. She maintains reference materials pertinent to information associated with HPD, DNR, state government, other historic preservationist groups, and historic preservation in general.  Jo Ann has been in state employment for over 16 years. Prior to coming to HPD, in November 2007, she worked at Georgia Department of Transportation and Georgia Mental Health Institute.  Jo Ann earned an associate degree from Atlanta Area Technical School.

What do you do on a typical work day?
I direct inquiries from the public to staff or other agencies; research info for callers; prepare, sort and distribute mail; greet clients; assist office staff; answer phones.

How is working at HPD different from other places you've worked?
The staff shares their knowledge and that gives me more fuel to assist public. Other than proofreading, a great deal of reading is necessary for me to understand the nature of what we do, and I enjoy reading.

How has working at HPD affected your understanding of historic preservation?
I never knew the intricate details of maintaining historic property until now. The inquiries we get have pointed me in the direction of major research, which has given me a new respect for the historic properties I grew up knowing and loving.

Upcoming HPD staff appearances

February 23, 7 PM - Jeanne Cyriaque, African American Programs Coordinator, will present "The Men at the Meeting with General Sherman" at First African Baptist Church, located at 23 Montgomery Street in Savannah.  Her lecture will explore the discussion at this historic meeting in 1865 and how these religious leaders impacted Reconstruction in Georgia.  There will be a reception at 6:30 PM, followed by the lecture at 7:00.  The lecture is sponsored by the Georgia African American Historic Preservation Network (GAAHPN) and Historic Savannah Foundation.  The event is free and open to the public.  For more information email

February 25, 12 PM - Jeanne Cyriaque, African American Programs Coordinator, will present a lecture at the Columbus Museum's Lunch and Lecture Series.  Her topic is Reconstruction and the Evolution of African-American Churches and Schools in the Chattahoochee Region.  The lecture accompanies the Columbus Museum's current exhibition: Let the Records Show: Discovering the Valley's Black Community in Slavery and Freedom.  The event and admission to the museum are free!  For further information, visit

March 6 - Ced Dolder, Tax Incentives Coordinator, and Steven Moffson, Architectural Historian, will speak at the Decatur Old House Fair on historic preservation tax incentives and the National Register of Historic Places.

March 18, 9 AM - Ced Dolder, Tax Incentives Coordinator, and Leigh Burns, Preservation Planner & CLG Coordinator, will give a presentation on economic incentives for historic preservation at the Main Street Institute in St. Marys.  Contact Kim Carter at 404-679-0604 or

March 24 - Richard Cloues, Historic Resources Chief, will present "The Ranch House in DeKalb County" as part of the DeKalb History Center's "Lunch and Learn" program.

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DNR Historic Preservation Division
Jewett Center for Historic Preservation
2610 GA Hwy 155, SW
Stockbridge, GA 30281

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Title image:
Eleanor Roosevelt School, Warm Springs (Meriwether County) - more