Quarterly Journal of Significant Omega-3 Research
Effect of DHA enriched bread on multiple CHD risk factors
Sagara M, Njelekela et al. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Supplementation on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Serum Lipids in Scottish Men with Hypertension and Hypercholoesterolemia. International Journal of Hypertension, 2011, doi:10.4061/2011/809198.
Death rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in Scotland are amongst the highest in Europe ; whereas, levels of fish consumption in Scotland are amongst the lowest in the world . Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between death from CHD and fish consumption , consequently this study aimed to assess the potential benefit of DHA supplementation on a range of CHD risk factors in Scottish men with pre-existing hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia.
Fifty-six hypertensive and/or hypercholesterolemic men were initially enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive either 2g/day of DHA or 1g/day of olive oil. The oils were incorporated into bread rolls, which were supplied on alternate days for a total of five weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and lipid proﬁles were measured at the end of the supplementation period.
Of the 56 men that enrolled in the study, results from 38 of the men were available for analysis. Results demonstrated that men given DHA-enriched bread rolls showed significant reductions in systolic (5.8%) and diastolic (3.7%) blood pressure as well as heart rate (7.5%) when compared to baseline. The olive oil group also demonstrated reductions in these parameters but these did not reach statistical significance (see figure below from Sagara et al., 2011).
Analysis of serum lipid profiles also demonstrated beneficial results in the DHA supplemented group, with significant increases in HDL cholesterol (16.7%) and significant decreases in both the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and the non-HDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio when compared to baseline. These beneficial changes in serum cholesterol composition were also demonstrated in the olive oil supplemented group.
Randomized, double-bind, placebo-controlled design
Assessment of multiple risk factors
Placebo and active administered in bread rolls which improved compliance and blinding whilst also demonstrating the ability to supplement omega 3s in food
Beneficial results over relatively short period of supplementation (5 weeks)
Use of olive oil placebo made it difficult to detect differences between groups
Relatively small sample size
Some of the lipid profile indicators, such as apolipoproteins, were not assessed
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, supplementation of DHA incorporated into bread rolls significantly reduced multiple independent risk factors for CHD in men with hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, dietary supplementation of DHA in food is an effective method for reducing the risk of CHD in people who do not frequently eat fish.
Weatherhead G, Byelashov A, Rice HB. Advances in EPA & DHA Research: Effect of DHA enriched bread on multiple CHD risk factors. Quarterly Journal of Significant Omega-3 Research, 04;(01), 2011.
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